Yes. Thankfully most of the robots used to crawl websites obey the rules contained within a special file named robots.txt
To prevent all such robots from indexing your site you just need to create a file with the file name robots.txt containing the following text;
Place this file into the root directory of your site and the robots who follow the rules (all the major search engines) will not index your site.
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edit: beaten by Bob, he must type faster than me