It's a table of numbers. It doesn't matter where the data are stored. That's why you should keep your model and view separate. You are conflating two different ideas. The only problem you are describing with IE has to do with the view, and specifically the styles applied to the view, i.e. CSS. MySQL is simply not related.
Adding query parameters is another issue as well, not related to the presentation issue you detailed at the beginning. For that, you'll need a form, and you'll need to sanitise and validate the input, then use that to filter the data, which, in the case of data stored in a database, will involve building a query incorporating those parameters.
A CMS on its own won't help you. What you need to do is a bit of programming. A simple framework could help, and it would probably be easier to do that using a full-blown CMS. But that's up to you.
I've just read your link to the Concrete5 forum and I have to agree with them. You need to do a little code. There's nothing magical out there that's going to just take your database and present it for you, unless you want to just let your users access it with phpMyAdmin or something. That being said, Yii does a great job of producing basic models, views, forms, and controllers based on an existing database. It can very easily get you very far along the way, but you'll still need to do some work.