Generally, no. You can't be sure your email made it to the intended human's eyes instead of being filtered somewhere else or deleted. I'd suggest asking the person if they are okay with something you said in the mail, then awaiting their response.
Some conditions will produce an error message (the mail server sending you something indicating a delay in sending, a failed attempt at sending, or some other error).
There are some email programs that try to suggest otherwise--read receipts, proprietary extensions of various kinds to tell the sender when the email was downloaded or displayed. But these don't really tell you what you want to know and they're all spoofable.