You can, if I understand your request.
Assuming you have a hosting plan already, first create a new user that you want to use to access the site. Then add the domain to your package (before, obviously, you transfer the DNS records).
Within 2 hours (normally about 20 minutes) you'll get emails confirming that the user and web account have been created. It will also tell you how to access your account before DNS propegates. In my case, it told me to use bob.dreamhost.com.
SSH to that server (ie, bob.dreamhost.com) and log into your account. Once you're there, type "ping www.yourwebsite.com". Even though DNS hasn't propegated across the net, THEY will have their server set to whatever IP you'll be assigned to.
Let's say that the ping comes back as "184.108.40.206". As others have said, that's a shared IP, and in order for virtual hosting to work correctly, you need to come in via a normal URL that includes your website name. If you're on a Windows box, you can accomplish this by editing your c:\windows\system32\drivers\etc\hosts file and adding a line that reads:
(If you're on a mac, I'm sure there's a way to do it, but I don't know it. And if you're on linux, look for /etc/hosts instead.)
Now when you go to www.yourwebsite.com in your browser, you should be taken to your new site. When you set up your mysql database, you'll give it a name (ie, mysql,yourwebsite.com). Do the same thing you did w/ www. Ping it, get the IP, and add it to your hosts file.
Hope that helps,